Shoulder arthrosis

Degeneration of connective tissue and cartilage eventually leads to the development of a chronic disease characterized by a wavy course and is called osteoarthritis. It has been found that osteoarthritis of the shoulder joint is a pathological change in the tissues of the articular sac of the shoulder. A distinctive feature of this disease is considered to be extremely slow development. Therefore, the patient does not feel the development of the pathological process. The shoulder joint is one of the most mobile and has a wide range of motion. However, this, together with the forearm joint, makes it one of the most traumatic. Even minor mechanical injuries can lead to the development of the disease.

shoulder arthrosis

Causes of osteoarthritis

The reasons for the development of the disease are the natural erosion of connective tissue, inflammation of various etiologies and salt deposits. In addition, there are a number of factors that can lead to the development of the pathological process, during which the cartilage tissue becomes thinner and loses its smoothness.

Classification of osteoarthritis

There is a conventional classification of the disease - it is primary and secondary osteoarthritis.

Primary osteoarthritis develops over time without any obvious cause during natural changes in the joint. Second - as a result of limb damage. The second type of osteoarthritis is more commonly diagnosed in middle-aged people and young people. A mixed type of disease is most commonly diagnosed in the elderly. The development of primary disease can lead to the following:

  • genetic diseases that lead to premature destruction of connective tissue and the development of the disease at a young age. Osteoarthritis of the shoulder joint is more common in women with dysfunctional genetics.
  • Congenital defects of the joints that cause their increased trauma.

The main reasons for the development of the second group of diseases include the following reasons.

  • Mechanical damage to hands and weeds. These include dislocations, fractures, severe caries. Torsion can also cause disease.
  • Osteoarthritis can be called an occupational disease of all builders and those who have the main workload in their hands.
  • The cause of osteoarthritis is advanced rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Mechanical damage always affects the nerve fibers and the blood supply system, resulting in reduced tissue nutrition, leading to post-traumatic osteoarthritis.
  • Disorders of the endocrine system, metabolic processes. Unstable functioning of the endocrine system leads to a decrease in the supply of essential nutrients to organs and tissues, which in turn negatively affects joint mobility and contributes to its deformation.
  • During menopause, the destruction of cartilage tissue begins due to a decrease in the amount of female hormones. Autoimmune diseases such as gout or psoriasis are also considered catalysts for the development of osteoarthritis.
  • Diseases of the cardiovascular system of the body largely affect the active destruction of the articular sac of the shoulder. For example, varicose veins lead to a slowing of blood flow through the arteries, which significantly affects the nutrition of tissues, resulting in the development of joint degeneration.

Traumatologists always warn that untimely dislocation or lack of proper treatment in the future will inevitably lead to the development of osteoarthritis. This is due to the fact that the bones grow together and the joint loses mobility.

The course of the disease

Osteoarthritis of the shoulder joint begins with a gradual change in cartilage tissue. Due to injuries or other causes, the blood supply to the connective tissue is reduced, which leads to thinning of the cartilage, its external changes, a decrease in the synovial membrane, and the appearance of salt deposits. This reduces the range of motion and causes concern in this area.

Symptoms of the disease

The clinical picture of osteoarthritis is gradual, so many do not see the initial stage of the disease and miss the opportunity to eliminate the lesion quickly.

Symptoms of arthritis include:

  1. Pain in the shoulder, clavicle and shoulder blades. Pain can manifest itself both at rest and during active loads.
  2. First, a quieter, and then a crackling sound in the combination.
  3. Decreased motor activity of the limb.
  4. Joint painful reaction to changing weather conditions.
  5. A small swelling may appear in the affected joint area.
  6. Complete loss of mobility due to ossification of the joint, this symptom is observed in the most severe stage of the disease.

Degrees of arthrosis of the shoulder joint

The stages of development of the disease have a clear classification. There are 4 stages in the development of osteoarthritis.

1st degree osteoarthritis

The onset of the pathology is characterized by mild pain in the shoulder area in the morning and evening. In the morning there is a decrease in motor activity, which disappears after a while. There is a bit of rigidity in the movement. After a long rest with an active load, shooting pain may occur. When working with one hand on the shoulder joint, a crisis that can hardly be heard without an attack of painful sensations can be noted. Constant pain occurs only during physical exertion, disappears at rest. It is not always possible to determine the onset of the disease with the help of X-ray examination, because the image shows only the appearance of small salt deposits and a slight narrowing of the synovial membrane.

Osteoarthritis 2 degrees

At this stage of the disease, a significant decrease in motor activity is observed. Crisis in the joint is noticeable during movement, the symptoms of pain are sharp and persistent. The joint remains mobile, but the mechanics of movement change significantly. The pain during exercise is more severe and prolonged. During the development of grade 2 osteoarthritis, the patient does not leave a constant feeling of fatigue. Painful pains appear in the shoulders, associated with a significant change in the thickness of the interosseous membrane. X-ray image shows that the synovial cavity is several times thinner than normal. In addition, there is a significant deformation of the joint, which makes it impossible to perform heavy physical work. Salt deposits occupy a growing area.

3 degrees osteoarthritis

This stage of the disease is characterized by a significant loss of motor activity, down to small amplitude movements. The pain is constant, the nature of the pain changes dramatically. This is due to spasms of the periarticular muscles. The bones of the joint become inflamed and sensitive to changing weather conditions. A sign of this degree of osteoarthritis is a murmur heard by others in the slightest movement of the hand. On X-ray examination, there is almost complete disappearance of the interosseous membrane, with significant salt deposits along the edges. The deformation of the tissues is so great that it creates significant difficulties in movement until it is completely lost. Grade 3 osteoarthritis is the cause of disability as a result of loss of extremity capacity.

4 stages of osteoarthritis development

At this stage of the disease there is a complete loss of movement, the joint is completely deformed. It is accompanied by constant unbearable pain that is not suppressed by medication. Radiography shows a fusion of the bones of the joint - the appearance of ankylosis or a false joint - neoarthrosis. This form of the disease always leads to disability. The only treatment is surgery to replace the joint with an artificial one.

Diagnosis and differential diagnosis of osteoarthritis

The initial diagnosis is made based on joint mobility tests and a description of the symptoms from the patient's words. An X-ray examination is scheduled for damage or rejection. At the initial stage, light salt deposits are noted, the deformation of the joint is not stable. In complex stages of the disease, the X-ray image fully reflects the degree of destruction of connective tissue and the affected joint area.

At the initial stage, the doctor may prescribe additional tests for an accurate diagnosis, such as contrast or non-contrast CT scan or magnetic resonance imaging.

Be sure to schedule a biochemical blood test to determine the amount of uric acid salts.

Treatment of osteoarthritis of the shoulder joint

The golden rule, which is easier to prevent and treat the disease, also applies in this case. However, if the disease begins to develop, the main thing is to start complex treatment on time. The nature of the disease is such that it cannot be treated, but the risk of developing it can be significantly reduced.

Treatment in the early stages

In the early stages of the disease, chondroprotectors are prescribed to accelerate the process of cartilage tissue regeneration, and vitamin-mineral complexes increase the amount of essential trace elements in the periarticular tissues.

To reduce the symptoms, the patient is prescribed a diet, salty, sour foods, various types of canned food and smoked meat are strictly prohibited. It is recommended to eat as many vegetables and fruits as possible.

The doctor should prescribe ointments and gels that not only relieve pain, but also help to restore the connective tissue of the joint.

In the treatment of first-degree osteoarthritis, great importance is attached to physiotherapy exercises. It is recommended to apply medical patches to the affected joint.

Treatment of stage 2 osteoarthritis

At this stage, it is necessary to reduce the pain syndrome and completely or partially get rid of the source of inflammation. In this case, non-steroidal drugs are prescribed to relieve pain and inflammation.

As in the first case, the use of chondroprotectors is mandatory. Hyaluronic acid, which is part of these drugs, accelerates the process of tissue regeneration. A strict diet is mandatory, with the exception of all foods that cause the development of the disease.

In addition to medication, regular physical activity is needed. Physiotherapy is an invaluable aid in the treatment of osteoarthritis. The simplest but most effective treatments are ultrasound treatment of the affected joint, electrophoresis, and point laser pulse on the bones of the shoulder joint.

In addition, mud baths, massage visits and traditional medicine are recommended to activate the recovery process. These measures can significantly slow the progression of the disease.

Treatment of stage 3 of the disease

Treatment of this stage is a series of measures to relieve pain, for which they give an injection in combination with a corticosteroid. The number of blockades should not exceed 4 times a year.

Therapeutic measures are aimed at activating the process of tissue regeneration and slowing down the process of destruction. For this purpose, chondroprotectants and drugs that improve blood circulation are prescribed.

Physiotherapy and physiotherapy exercises are also recommended. A strict diet is required, except for foods that are high in nutrients or acids.

Treatment of grade 4 osteoarthritis

Treatment of this form of the disease is possible only surgically by replacing the joint with an artificial one. The most common are ceramic, titanium and plastic prostheses. Medical methods, as well as physiotherapy do not work.

Treatment with folk remedies

In the early stages of the disease, traditional medicine is actively used. Tinctures, various compresses, rubs, homemade ointments are widely used on medicinal plants.

Folk remedies only eliminate additional pain, no therapeutic effect is observed. Therapeutic measures are prescribed only by a specialist and also monitors their implementation.

Oatmeal, cabbage juice or honey compresses are widely used. Alcohol tinctures are prepared on the rhizomes of elecampane and golden mustache, lilac flowers and angels.

Herbal baths are recommended as a warming procedure. To do this, take grass powder, mint, burdock rhizomes, mustard seeds.

Ointments are made on the basis of cosmetic Vaseline with herbs sweet clover, hops, St. John's wort.

Which doctor treats arthritis

An orthopedic surgeon deals with joint disease, but when determining the underlying causes of the disease, an additional examination by a trauma surgeon is possible. Because it is the precise identification of the causes of the disease that allows you to determine the most appropriate treatment.